English Subtitle and Extra-linguistic, Culture-bound References at Fajr Film Festival

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of English Language, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Linguistics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran


The complexity of culture, language, and the relationship existing between them develops Extra-linguistic Culture-bound Reference (ECR) as a very challenging task for a translator. Considering this, this study was intended to investigate the strategies applied by translators for rendering extra-linguistic references in the Iranian movies screened at international film festivals. To this end, a number of such movies were randomly selected and viewed to spot the extra-linguistic culture-bound references and extract their subtitled English translations. Then, the English-rendered equivalents of the identified Persian references were analyzed and classified according to Pederson’s taxonomy of ECR transfer strategies to recognize which strategies the translators have used to render such items. The obtained results were presented in tables and diagrams to show the frequency and percentage of each utilized strategy. "Substitution" and "direct translation" were reported as the most and the least frequently applied strategies. 


Article Title [Persian]

ترجمه ارجاعات فرهنگی برون زبانی در زیرنویس انگلیسی فیلم‌های ایرانی

Abstract [Persian]

پیچیدگی فرهنگ، زبان، و روابط موجود بین آنها  "ارجاعات فرهنگی برون زبانی" (ECR) را به عنوان یک امر چالش برانگیز برای مترجم توسعه می دهد (سلیمی، 2010). این مطالعه با هدف بررسی استراتژی های ترجمه شده برای ارائه ارجاعات فرهنگی برون زبانی در فیلم های ایرانی اکران شده در جشنواره های بین المللی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، تعدادی از این فیلم ها بهمراه زیرنویس های ترجمه شده انتخاب، و جهت شناسایی "ارجاعات فرهنگی برون زبانی " بررسی شدند. سپس، معادل های ارائه شده انگلیسی شناسایی شده بر طبق مدل پدرسون (2005) استراتژی های بکار رفته توسط مترجمان  مختلف مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. در نهایت، نتایج حاصل از بررسی در جداول و نمودارهای مرتبط به منظور تعیین فراوانی و درصد اتخاذ هر یک از استراتژی ها، نشان داده شدند. استراتژی "جایگزینی" بعنوان بیشترین، و "ترجمه مستقیم" به عنوان کمترین استراتژی بکار رفته  گزارش شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • زیرنویس
  • ارجاعات فرهنگی برون زبانی
  • ترجمه صوتی و تصویری
Aixela, J.F. (1996). “Culture-Specific Items in Translation”. In R. Alvarez, and M.C.A Vidal, Translation, Power, Subversion. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.
Araujo, V. (2004). “To Be or Not To Be Natural: Clichés of Emotion in Screen Translation. In   Meta,   Vol.1, No.49 Retrieved        from http://WWW.erudit.org/revue/meta/2004/v 49/n1/009031ar.pdf
Baker, M. (1998). Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Baker, M. (1998). Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Bassnett, S. (2002). Translation Studies. London: Routledge.
Berlin, J.A. (1992). Poststructuralism, Cultural Studies and the Composition Classroom: Postmodern Theory in Practice. Rhetoric Review. Vol. 11, No.1 (Autumn, 1992).
Cattrysse, P. (1992). Film (Adaptation) as Translation: Some Methodological Proposals. In Target, Vol.4, No.1.
Faiq, S. (2004) Cultural Encounters in Translation from Arabic. Great Britain: Cromwell Press Ltd.
Gambier. Y. & Gottlieb, H. (2001). (Multimedia Transaltion. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Gottlieb, H. (1992). “Subtitling: A New University Discipline”. In G. Dollerup, & A. Lindergaard, (Eds), Teaching Translation and Iterpreting I. Amsterdam: John Bemjamin.
Gottlieb, H. (1994a). “Subtitling: Diagonal Translation”. In Perspectives:Studies in Translatology, 2(1).
Gottlieb, H. (1994b). “Subtitling: People Translating People”. In G. Dollerup, & A.
Lindergaard, (Eds.), Teaching Translation and Interpreting II. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Gottlieb, H. (1997). “You Got the Picture? On The Polysemiotics of Subtitling Wordplay”. In Delabastita (Ed.), Traductio: Essays on Punning and Translation. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
Gottlieb, H. (1998). “Subtitling”. In M. Baker, Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
Gottlieb, H. (2005). Screen Translation, Eight studies in subtitling, dubbing and voiceover. Center for Translation Studies, Department of English, Univ. of Copenhagen.
Hervey, S. and Higgins, (2002). Thinking Translation. London: Routledge.
Jakobson, R. (1959/2000). “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation”. In L. Venuti (Ed.), the Translation Studies Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
Leppihalme, R. (1994). Culture Bumps: On the Translation of Allusions. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, English Department Studies.
Lotman, J., Uspensky, B. (1978). On the Semiotic Mechanism of Culture. New Literary History.
Luyken, G. et al. (1991). Overcoming Langauage Barriers in Television Dubbing and Subtitling for the European Audience. The European institute for the Media: Dusseldorf.
Mundey, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge
Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall
Pedersen, J. (2005). How is culture rendered in subtitles? In MuTra Conference Proceedings. Retrieved             7          November       2009    from:http://www.eu roconfere nces.info /.../2005_ Pedersen_Jan.pdf
Rasouli, M. (2011). Strategies Applied in Translation of Culture-Specific Items in Translation of the I.R.I Constitution and the Civil Code (from Persian into English). Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University.
Safari, J. (2008). Strategies Employed for the Translation of Culture-Specific Items: A Comparative Study of the Translation of Sadeq Hedayat’s Works into English. Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University.
Salimi Z. (2010). Translation of Culture-Specific Items in Rubaiat of Omar Khayyam by Persian Native and Non-Persian-Native Translators into English. Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University.
Samakar, S. “Translation of Extralinguistic Culture-Bound Elements in Persian Movies Subtitled Into English: A Case Study of the Lizard”, (2010), Accessed in: Oct., 27, 2010, < http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article2110.php>
Shabani Rad, F. (2004). Strategies Applied in the Translation of Culture-Specific Items in Literary Texts. Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University.
Snell-Hornby, M. (1988). Translation Studies. An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Venuti, L. (1995). The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. London and New York: Routledge.
Vinay, J., and Darbelnet, J. (1958/1997). A Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodology for Translation. In Munday, J. (2001) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Application. London and New York:
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Serial Number 4
ISBN 9783899664812
April 2023
Pages 1-21
  • Receive Date: 09 November 2022
  • Revise Date: 27 November 2022
  • Accept Date: 11 December 2022