Examination of Image Schemas in Scientific and Literary Texts Within the Framework of Cognitive Semantics

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Language and Persian Literature, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Iranology, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran


The aim of this study is to examine and compare the image schemas in scientific and literary texts within the framework of cognitive linguistics. Image schemas are one of the key topics in fields such as philosophy, psychology, and linguistics. According to cognitive linguists, the importance of image schemas, as a part of language and thought, is that they, in terms of rudimentary embodied concepts, systematically provide the fundamental building blocks for more complex concepts. That makes their study inevitable in many fields. In this study, I examined Johnson’s basic image schemas (i.e., force, path, and containment) in scientific and literary texts, as two extremely different genres. I used qualitative, descriptive, and inferential methods in our examination. The results show that, despite their significant difference (p<.05), all three schemas are used in both scientific and literary genres. The most frequent schemas in scientific and literary texts were containment schemas (52%) and path schemas (56%), respectively. There also was a significant difference between schematic (9%) and non-schematic (91%) sentences (p<.05). I suggested that the observed difference between the two genres may be due to the fact that scientific concepts are more abstract, and the use of schemas facilitates their understanding.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

بررسی طرح‌واره‏ تصوری در متون علمی و متون ادبی در چارچوب معناشناسی شناختی

Abstract [Persian]

هدف این پژوهش بررسی طرح‏واره ‏های تصوری پایه در متون علمی و ادبی و مقایسه آنها در چارچوب زبان‏شناسی شناختی است. طرح‏واره ‏های تصوری یکی از مباحث اساسی رشته ‏هایی چون فلسفه، روان‏شناسی و زبان‏شناسی است. به زعم زبان‏شناسان شناختی اهمیت طرح‏واره ‏های تصوری به عنوان بخشی از سازوکار زبان و تفکر این است که آنها به ‏عنوان مفاهیم جسمیت یافته ابتدایی و اولیه می‏توانند به شکلی نظام‏مند، ساختار مفاهیم پیچیده ‏تر را فراهم آورند. این مهم باعث اجتناب‌ناپذیر شدن مطالعه و بررسی آنها در بسیاری از زمینه ‏ها می‏شود. دراین پژوهش به بررسی طرح‏واره ‏های تصوری حجمی، حرکتی و قدرتی جانسون به‏ عنوان طرح‏واره ‏های پایه در متون علمی و ادبی به عنوان دو گفتمان کاملا متفاوت بپردازد. روش پژوهش به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نوع کیفی، توصیفی و استنباطی است. نتایج نشان می‏دهد که هر سه طرح‏واره در هر دو نوع گفتمان علمی و ادبی کاربرد دارند که بیشترین میزان در متون ادبی به طرح‏واره حرکتی (52%) و در متون علمی به طرح‏واره حجمی (56%) اختصاص دارد واین تفاوت بین فراوانی انواع طرح‏واره ‏ها معنادار است. همچنین میزان جملات حاوی طرح‏واره (91%) در کل پیکره بیشتر از جملات بدون طرح‏واره (9%) است و این تفاوت بین فراوانی این ‏دو معنا دار است. استفاده از طرح‏واره در متون علمی بیشتر از متون ادبی است و این میزان با توجه به معنادار بودن این تفاوت می‏تواند به‏ دلیل انتزاعی بودن مفاهیم علمی باشد که نیاز به طرح‏واره برای بیان آن مفاهیم را در جهت درک فیزیکی آن تسهیل می‏بخشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • معناشناسی شناختی
  • طرح‏واره تصوری
  • متون علمی
  • متون ادبی
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Volume 3, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
December 2023
Pages 53-70
  • Receive Date: 07 August 2023
  • Revise Date: 03 September 2023
  • Accept Date: 16 October 2023