Father/Daughter Archetypal Construction in Selected Poems of Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, and Forough Farrokhzad: Jungian Approach

Document Type : Review Article

Authors

Department of Foreign Languages, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Archetype is essential for psychological development. In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious: a set of shared memories and ideas that all can identify with regardless of the culture that one was born into or the period in which one lives. Within the collective unconscious there exist several archetypes among which the father figure is of considerable importance and attention in this study. One way to communicate this particular archetype is through literature. The present article tries to examine and sketch how psychological principles and doctrines and psychic stimulants and tensions influence the creation of literary works particularly poetry through the poems as well as the poet’s biography. It attempts to plot connections between the tensions that existed in the poems and their creators. In this paper, Carl Jung’s theory of daughter/father archetypal construction in the psyche is applied as a critical tool to analyze the relationship between the father and daughter within the poems of the selected poets. The poems that will be discussed include Sylvia Plath’s Full Fathom Five, Anne Sexton’s One for my Dame, and Forough Farrokhzad’s I Feel Sympathy for the Garden. Moreover, this paper investigates the description of fathers and the poets’ ambivalent feelings toward their fathers. It is argued that these poets, through their creations, reconstruct the fact (the memory) of their traumatic past, their fathers’ images, and themselves in particular.

Keywords

Article Title [Persian]

ساخت کهن الگوی پدر/دختری در گزیده اشعار سیلویا پلات، آن سکستون و فروغ فرخزاد: رویکرد یونگی

Abstract [Persian]

کهن الگو برای رشد روانشناختی ضروری است. در روانشناسی یونگ، کهن الگوها عناصر بسیار توسعه یافته ناخودآگاه جمعی هستند: مجموعه ای از خاطرات و ایده های مشترک که همه می توانند بدون در نظر گرفتن فرهنگی که در آن متولد شده یا دوره زمانی که در آن زندگی می کند، با آنها آشنا شوند. در ضمیر ناخودآگاه جمعی تعدادی کهن الگو وجود دارد که در این پژوهش نقش پدر از اهمیت و توجه قابل توجهی برخوردار است.یکی از راه های ارتباط با این کهن الگوی خاص از طریق ادبیات است.مقاله حاضر سعی دارد تا به بررسی و ترسیم کدام منطق در روان بپردازد. روش‌هایی که اصول و آموزه‌ها و محرک‌ها و تنش‌های روانی بر خلق آثار ادبی به‌ویژه شعر از طریق اشعار و زندگی‌نامه شاعر تأثیر می‌گذارند و تلاش می‌کند تا پیوندهایی را بین تنش‌های موجود در اشعار و سازندگان آن ترسیم کند. در روان نیز به عنوان انتقادی به کار می رود برای تجزیه و تحلیل رابطه پدر و دختر در اشعار شاعران منتخب، شعرهایی که مورد بحث قرار خواهند گرفت عبارتند از: سیلویا پلات، یکی از آن سکستون برای دخترم، و فروغ فرخزاد، من با باغ همدردی می کنم. این مقاله به بررسی توصیف پدران و احساسات دوسوگرایانه شاعران نسبت به پدرانشان می‌پردازد و استدلال می‌شود که این شاعران با آفرینش‌های خود، واقعیت (خاطره) گذشته آسیب‌زا، تصاویر پدرانشان و به‌ویژه خودشان را بازسازی می‌کنند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • شعر
  • کهن الگو
  • رابطه دختر/پدر
  • سیلویا پلات
  • آن سکستون
  • فروغ فرخزاد
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  • Receive Date: 08 August 2022
  • Revise Date: 18 October 2022
  • Accept Date: 09 December 2022
  • First Publish Date: 09 December 2022