Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Introspective Intelligence and Their Speaking Skill

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of English Language, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

2 Khorasan Razavi Ministry of Education, Department of English Language, Mashhad, Iran

10.22034/ijltr.2022.160317

Abstract

This study was an endeavor to explore the relationship between EFL learners’ introspective intelligence and their speaking skill in language institutes. The study also tried to explore the relationship between students’ levels and their responses to the questionnaire items. To do this, 60 advanced EFL learners of both genders were selected based on convenience sampling. The data were collected through a speaking test adopted from their textbook and introspective intelligence items extracted from the Multiple Intelligences (MI) questionnaire. The data were inserted into SPSS software version 24 and analyzed descriptively and inferentially. The findings indicated a positive relationship between introspective intelligence and female students' speaking, however, no relationship was found between introspective intelligence and males' speaking. Also, the difference in introspective intelligence was observed more among the female students whose introspective intelligence has an impact on their speaking performance. The findings of this study have important implications for language teaching and learning. The study has provided us with the opportunity to look differently at instruction, curriculum, and assessment.

Keywords

Article Title [Persian]

رابطه بین هوش درون فردی زبان آموزان ایرانی و مهارت گفتاری آنان

Abstract [Persian]

پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه هوش درون فردی فراگیران دختر و پسر و مهارت گفتاری آنها در موسسات زبان انجام شد. این پژوهش سعی در بررسی رابطه بین سطح زبان آموزان و پاسخ آنها به سوالات پرسشنامه داشت. شرکت کنندگان، زبان آموزان سطح متوسطه در موسسه زبان انگلیسی سفیر و جهان اندیشان بودند. روش کمی برای انجام پروژه فعلی انتخاب شد. در این مطالعه از دو نوع ابزار استفاده شده است. آزمون صحبت کردن که از کتاب American English File و هوش درون فردی استخراج شده از پرسشنامه هوش چندگانه گاردنر استخراج شد که اعتبار و روایی آنها با استفاده از تحلیل دقیق بررسی و گزارش شده است. داده ها به صورت توصیفی و استنباطی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها حاکی از آن است که این نوع هوش می تواند بر گفتار دانش آموزان دختر تأثیر بگذارد اما تاثیری در عملکرد گفتگوی دانش آموزان پسر نداشت. همچنین این تحقیق رابطه بین سطح زبان آموزان و پاسخ آنها به موارد پرسشنامه را ارزیابی کرده است. بر اساس داده های دریافت شده ، تفاوت هوش درون فردی را می توان با وضوح بیشتری در بین زبان آموزان دختر مشاهده کرد که هوش درون فردی آنها بر عملکرد گفتارشان تأثیر دارد، اما زبان آموزان پسر تحت تأثیر هوش درون فردی خود در مهارت صحبت کردن قرار نگرفتند. یافته های این تحقیق پیامدهای مهمی برای آموزش و یادگیری زبان دارد. این پژوهش فرصتی را برای ما فراهم کرده است که نگاه متفاوتی به آموزش، برنامه درسی و ارزشیابی داشته باشیم.

Keywords [Persian]

  • هوش
  • هوش درون فردی
  • مهارت صحبت کردن
  • زبان آموزان ایرانی
Alizadeh, H., Saeidi, M., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2018). The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Multiple Intelligences and their Writing Performance across Different Genders. Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 7 (14), 1-22.
Anning, A. (1991). The first year at school. Ballmer: Open University Press.
Behjat, F. (2012). Interpersonal and introspective intelligence: Do they work in foreign-language learning? Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32 (2012) 351 – 355.
Brown, A. (1994). The effect of rater variables in the development of an occupation-specific language performance test. Language Testing, 6, 152-163.
Cunningham, M. (1999). ESL Resources. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/Speak.html
Derakhshan, A. & Faribi, M. (2015). Multiple Intelligences: Language Learning and Teaching. International Journal of English Linguistics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 63-72.
Diller, K. (1981). Neurolinguistic clues to the essentials of a good language teaching methodology: Comprehension, problem-solving, and meaningful practice. Newbury House.
Dornyei, Z. (2007). How to Design and Analyze Surveys in Second Language Acquisition Research. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1, 153-174.
Dunn, R. (2000). Learning Style: Theory, Research, and Practice. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13 (1), 3-22.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Eng, L. L., & Mustapha, G., (2010). Enhancing writing ability through multiple-intelligence strategies. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 18 (S), 53-63.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences the theory in practice. New York: Basic Books, Harper Collins Publishers.
Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gündüz, Z. & Ünal, I. (2016). Effects of Multiple Intelligences Activities on Writing Skill Development in an EFL Context. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4 (7), 1687-1697.
Hashemian, M., Adibpour, M. (2012). Relationship between Iranian L2 Learners’ Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics, 3 (1), spring 2012
Jafari Gohar, M., Sadeghi, N. (2015). The Impact of Learning Style Preferences on Foreign language Achievement: A Case Study of Iranian EFL Students. Social and Behavioral Science, 171, 754-765.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. New York: Longman.
Lubinski, D. (2000). Assessing individual differences in human behavior: Sinking shafts at a few critical points. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 405-444.
McKenzie, W. (1999). Multiple Intelligences Survey. Retrieved from http://surfaquarium.com/MI/ MIinvent.htm.
Mettetal, G. (2007). Attitudes Toward a Multiple Intelligences Curriculum. The Journal of Educational Research 91(2), 115-122.
No, G. D. (2010). The multiple intelligences of grade V pupils: Bases for the proposed learning enhancement program of David elementary school. E-International Scientific Research Journal, 2 (1), 90-109.
Nikolova, K., & Shopova, T. (2007). Multiple intelligences theory and educational practice. Bulgaria, 5 (2), 105-109.
Palenzuela Perez, M. & Reina Ruz, N. (2014). Introspective Intelligence and Motivational in Foreign Language Learning. European Scientific Journal, vol.10, No.17   ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.
Razmjoo, A. (2008). On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8 (2), 155-174.
Richard-Amato, P. A., (2003). Making it happen: From interactive to participatory language teaching: Theory and practice. White Plains, NY: Pearson.
Rubio, F.D. (2002). “La Inteligencia Introspective del alumnado de idiomas” in M. C. Fonseca (ed.) Intelligences Multiples, Multiples Formas de Ensenar Ingles (115-137). Cited in Introspective Intelligence and Motivation in Foreign Language Learning.
Saibani, B. & Simin, S. (2015). The relationship between multiple intelligences and speaking skills among advanced EFL learners in Bandar Abbas Azad University in Iran. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 2015 April, Volume 4 Number 2, 43-56.
Saricoban, A. (2001). The Teaching of Language Skills. Ankara: Hacettepetas.
Şener, S. & Çokçalışkan, A. (2018). An Investigation between Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles. Journal of Education and Training Studies 6, 2324-8068.
Sherman, E. J. (2014). Introspective Intelligence: How and When to Know Thyself. Cited in psychologytoday.com
Skehan, P. (1989). A Marginal Role for Tasks. ELT Journal, 56 (3), 289-295.
Smith, E. (2001). Implications of multiple intelligences theory for second language learning. Post-Script, 1(2), 32-52.
Sparks, S. D. (1995). "Flip" for lesson model promoted by Khan Academy". Education Week, 31 (5), 1.
Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ur, P. (2006).  A Course in Language Teaching: practice and theory. London: Cambridge      University Press.
Wang, H. (2017). Research on multiple intelligences theory and its enlightenment to higher education. Research on Modern Higher Education 3, 02010.
Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate evidence for multiple intelligences, Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theory. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 247-255.
Winarti, A., Yuanita, L. & Nur, M. (2019). The effect of multiple intelligence-based teaching strategies in enhancing the language skills of high school students. Journal of Technology and Science Education JOTSE 9 (2), 122-135.
Yi-an. S. (2010). Multiple intelligences and online student education. ELT Journal, 59 (4), 312-321.  
Zeraatpishe, M., Seifoori, Z., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2019). The Impact of Multiple Intelligence-Oriented Writing Tasks on the Accuracy, Fluency, and Organization of ELT Students’ Writing. The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 12 (25), 1-31.
Alizadeh, H., Saeidi, M., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2018). The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Multiple Intelligences and their Writing Performance across Different Genders. Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 7 (14), 1-22.
Anning, A. (1991). The first year at school. Ballmer: Open University Press.
Behjat, F. (2012). Interpersonal and introspective intelligence: Do they work in foreign-language learning? Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32 (2012) 351 – 355.
Brown, A. (1994). The effect of rater variables in the development of an occupation-specific language performance test. Language Testing, 6, 152-163.
Cunningham, M. (1999). ESL Resources. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/Speak.html
Derakhshan, A. & Faribi, M. (2015). Multiple Intelligences: Language Learning and Teaching. International Journal of English Linguistics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 63-72.
Diller, K. (1981). Neurolinguistic clues to the essentials of a good language teaching methodology: Comprehension, problem-solving, and meaningful practice. Newbury House.
Dornyei, Z. (2007). How to Design and Analyze Surveys in Second Language Acquisition Research. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1, 153-174.
Dunn, R. (2000). Learning Style: Theory, Research, and Practice. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 13 (1), 3-22.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Eng, L. L., & Mustapha, G., (2010). Enhancing writing ability through multiple-intelligence strategies. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 18 (S), 53-63.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences the theory in practice. New York: Basic Books, Harper Collins Publishers.
Gass, S. & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gündüz, Z. & Ünal, I. (2016). Effects of Multiple Intelligences Activities on Writing Skill Development in an EFL Context. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4 (7), 1687-1697.
Hashemian, M., Adibpour, M. (2012). Relationship between Iranian L2 Learners’ Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies. Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics, 3 (1), spring 2012
Jafari Gohar, M., Sadeghi, N. (2015). The Impact of Learning Style Preferences on Foreign language Achievement: A Case Study of Iranian EFL Students. Social and Behavioral Science, 171, 754-765.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. New York: Longman.
Lubinski, D. (2000). Assessing individual differences in human behavior: Sinking shafts at a few critical points. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 405-444.
McKenzie, W. (1999). Multiple Intelligences Survey. Retrieved from http://surfaquarium.com/MI/ MIinvent.htm.
Mettetal, G. (2007). Attitudes Toward a Multiple Intelligences Curriculum. The Journal of Educational Research 91(2), 115-122.
No, G. D. (2010). The multiple intelligences of grade V pupils: Bases for the proposed learning enhancement program of David elementary school. E-International Scientific Research Journal, 2 (1), 90-109.
Nikolova, K., & Shopova, T. (2007). Multiple intelligences theory and educational practice. Bulgaria, 5 (2), 105-109.
Palenzuela Perez, M. & Reina Ruz, N. (2014). Introspective Intelligence and Motivational in Foreign Language Learning. European Scientific Journal, vol.10, No.17   ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.
Razmjoo, A. (2008). On the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Language Proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8 (2), 155-174.
Richard-Amato, P. A., (2003). Making it happen: From interactive to participatory language teaching: Theory and practice. White Plains, NY: Pearson.
Rubio, F.D. (2002). “La Inteligencia Introspective del alumnado de idiomas” in M. C. Fonseca (ed.) Intelligences Multiples, Multiples Formas de Ensenar Ingles (115-137). Cited in Introspective Intelligence and Motivation in Foreign Language Learning.
Saibani, B. & Simin, S. (2015). The relationship between multiple intelligences and speaking skills among advanced EFL learners in Bandar Abbas Azad University in Iran. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 2015 April, Volume 4 Number 2, 43-56.
Saricoban, A. (2001). The Teaching of Language Skills. Ankara: Hacettepetas.
Şener, S. & Çokçalışkan, A. (2018). An Investigation between Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles. Journal of Education and Training Studies 6, 2324-8068.
Sherman, E. J. (2014). Introspective Intelligence: How and When to Know Thyself. Cited in psychologytoday.com
Skehan, P. (1989). A Marginal Role for Tasks. ELT Journal, 56 (3), 289-295.
Smith, E. (2001). Implications of multiple intelligences theory for second language learning. Post-Script, 1(2), 32-52.
Sparks, S. D. (1995). "Flip" for lesson model promoted by Khan Academy". Education Week, 31 (5), 1.
Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ur, P. (2006).  A Course in Language Teaching: practice and theory. London: Cambridge      University Press.
Wang, H. (2017). Research on multiple intelligences theory and its enlightenment to higher education. Research on Modern Higher Education 3, 02010.
Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate evidence for multiple intelligences, Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theory. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 247-255.
Winarti, A., Yuanita, L. & Nur, M. (2019). The effect of multiple intelligence-based teaching strategies in enhancing the language skills of high school students. Journal of Technology and Science Education JOTSE 9 (2), 122-135.
Yi-an. S. (2010). Multiple intelligences and online student education. ELT Journal, 59 (4), 312-321.  
Zeraatpishe, M., Seifoori, Z., & Hadidi Tamjid, N. (2019). The Impact of Multiple Intelligence-Oriented Writing Tasks on the Accuracy, Fluency, and Organization of ELT Students’ Writing. The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 12 (25), 1-31.
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
December 2022
Pages 75-91
  • Receive Date: 05 September 2022
  • Revise Date: 14 October 2022
  • Accept Date: 09 November 2022
  • First Publish Date: 11 November 2022